The organization has embarked on a three year project to develop a minimization toolbox for the industry that will help confectioners guard against dangerous mineral oils that find their way into products from numerous sources including the environment, packaging materials, inks and from processing aids.
The biggest source is packaging
Speaking to ConfectioneryNews after his presentation at the ProSweets Conference on Ingredients in Cologne, Germany, last week, Prof Reinhard Mattisek director of the Food Chemistry Institute (LCI), a division of the BDSI, said: “The first important step is to control the packaging – it is the biggest source.
“The use of cardboard increased in the last 20 years because it’s good packaging material and made from recycled sources. Now we have this contamination. So maybe manufacturers of food will change their packaging systems and use more plastics and avoid recycled papers.”
Growing concern over mineral oils
In 2012, the German press widely reported tests by consumer group Stiftung Warentest that claimed potentially dangerous mineral oil residues were found advent calendar chocolates.
Stiftung Warentest classed any product with over 3 mg of aromatic mineral oils as high in the substance and said that anything above 0.5 mg contained the carcinogenic aromatic variety.
Peter Liefen, a manager for BDSI, previously called the reports “panic making” and said that one piece of chocolate contained only 0.02 mg of aromatic oils. No legal limits for mineral oils currently exist in the EU.
Germany to legislate
Protection via food packaging could soon come under the spotlight given pending legislation in Germany.
“There are not regulations yet. The German food law has drafted regulation but it is not fixed yet. We expect that they will regulate the migration – the contents in the food packaging and not the levels in the food,” said Mattisek.
It’s not yet clear what level of mineral oils are present in confectionery and indeed whether these levels pose a risk to human health. “The Ministry says ‘not detectable’ – but what is ‘not detectable? We think that this may be very low limits in the parts per million (ppm) range, but it’s not clear yet,” said Mattisek.
Mineral oils in food
Mineral oils were first discovered to migrate into food in 2009 by the Zürich Canton Laboratory in Switzerland.
High traces of mineral oils were found in newspapers (30,000 mg) and levels of between 300-1,000 mg were found in food packaging.
A project by the German government found that more than 200 substances may migrate into food and it recommended a functional barrier for mineral oils.
MOSH and MOAH
Mineral oils are derived from crude oil and coal and are indigestible unlike edible oils, which are obtained from plants or minerals and are digestible. Certain types of mineral oils are also carcinogenic.
Mineral oils are compositions of complex hydrocarbons that fall into two categories: mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH). MOAH are more toxic than the MOSH variety and are also carcinogenic.
In food, MOAHs get into the product throughout the supply chain. Food packaging, particularly recycled paper or cardboard are big culprits as are offset processing inks. Mineral oils from the packaging can evaporate at room temperature and contaminate the food.
Migration from packaging can occur from primary packaging, secondary packaging and even from packages nearby the product, say the BDSI.
“The only safe way to avoid migration is use of a functional barrier,” said Mattisek, pinpointing plastic packaging such as polyethylene and polypropylene as possible options.
Other sources of contamination
Another source of contamination for MOSH is from processing aids and food additives including release agents, glazing agents and anti-dusting agents.
Mineral oils can also be found in the environment through industrial emissions, harvesting or from lubricating oils or cleaning agents used in manufacturing.
“Efforts by all parts of the value chain are necessary,” said Mattisek, adding that packaging alone would not solve the problem.