The study published in the Journal of Food Research International found that healthier fats like olive oil and sunflower oil could be used in biscuit formulations to replace trans and low-saturated fats.
“The biscuits formulated with either olive oil or sunflower oil and HPMC [hydroxypropyl methylcellulose] had the closest sensory properties to the shortening biscuits,” the researchers wrote.
Of the two oils, they said sunflower oil established a biscuit with a healthier fatty acid profile.
Moderate fat reduction, not drastic
The researchers warned that a drastic fat reduction impacted the taste and texture of the biscuits, and suggested a more moderate reduction.
“Fat plays a decisive role in this baked good product and some important sensory characteristics are strongly dependent on the fat type and content, as fat imparts shortening, richness and tenderness, and also improves mouth feel and flavor delivery,” they said.
Findings showed that reducing fat content from 18% to 10.6% was too drastic as this level of fat reduction resulted in harder, drier biscuits with fewer flavors.
The researchers found that a fat reduction to 15.6% made it possible to prepare biscuits which retained similar sensory properties to those of the controls with 18% fat. This amounts to a 13% reduction in overall fat content.
“When removing an important part of fat in biscuits, consumers perceived important differences in both texture and flavor. However, with a moderate fat reduction biscuits with similar sensory properties to full-fat ones could be obtained,” they said.
Source: Journal of Food Research International
Published online ahead of print, doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2013.03.053
“Formulating biscuits with healthier fats. Consumer profiling of textural and flavor sensations during consumption”
Authors: P. Tarancón, SM. Fiszman, A. Salvador and A. Tárrega